ARFA KARIM PRIDE OF PAKISTAN

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

KHYBER PASS(PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN BORDER)











































KHYBER PASS

The Khyber Pass, (Pashto: د خیبر درہ, Urdu: درۂ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft) is a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road and throughout history; it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The summit of the Khyber Pass is 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal and it cuts through the northeastern part of the Safed Koh mountains which themselves are a far southeastern extension of the Hindu kush range.

HISTORY

In some versions of the Aryan migration theory, the Indo-Aryans migrated to India via the Khyber Pass. Recorded invasions through the Khyber begin with the conquests of Darius I and Alexander the Great and also include later Muslim invasions of South Asia, culminating with the establishment of the Mughul Empire from 1526. The British invaded Afghanistan from India and fought three Afghan Wars in 1839-42, 1878-80, and 1919. George Molesworth, a member of the British force of 1919, summarized: "Every stone in the Khyber has been soaked in blood." Rudyard Kipling called it "a sword cut through the mountains."

Afghan chiefs and a British Political officer posed at Jamrud fort at the mouth of the Khyber Pass in 1878.

To the north of the Khyber Pass lies the country of the Mullagori tribe. To the south is Afridi Tirah, while the inhabitants of villages in the Pass itself are Afridi clansmen. Throughout the centuries the Pashtun clans, particularly the Afridis and the Afghan Shinwaris, have regarded the Pass as their own preserve and have levied a toll on travellers for safe conduct. Since this has long been their main source of income, resistance to challenges to the Shinwaris' authority has often been fierce.

For strategic reasons, after the First World War the British built a heavily engineered railway through the Pass. The Khyber Pass Railway from Jamrud, near Peshawar, to the Afghan border near Landi Kutal was opened in 1925.

During World War 11 concrete "dragon’s teeth " (tank obstacles) were erected on the valley floor due to British fears of a German tank invasion of India.

The Pass became widely known to thousands of Westerners and Japanese who traveled it in the days of the Hippie trail, taking a bus or car from Kabul to the Afghan border. At the Pakistani frontier post, travellers were advised not to wander away from the road, as the location was then a barely controlled Federally Administered Tribal Area. Then, after customs formalities, a quick daylight drive through the Pass was made. Monuments left by British Army units, as well as hillside forts, could be viewed from the highway.

The area of the Khyber Pass has been connected with a counterfeit arms industry, making various types of weapons known to gun collectors as Khyber Pass Copies, using local steel and blacksmith’s forges .

CURRENT CONFLICTS

Khyber Pass

During the current war in Afghanistan, the Khyber Pass has been a major route for resupplying NATO forces in the Afghan theater of conflict. Recognizing this, the Taliban attempted to choke off the route in late 2008 and early 2009, bringing the Taliban into conflict with the Pakistani government.

In February 2009, a bridge 15 miles northwest of Peshawar was blown up by militants presumably sympathetic to or sponsored by the Taliban. While it was not considered to be a major strategic blow to the allied war effort, it invigorated efforts to secure additional supply routes, some of which may ultimately run through Iran. However, the current general consensus is that the new supply route will pass through various central Asian republics to the north of Afghanistan.

CONQUERORS AND GENERALS

The commanders who crossed the Khyber Pass all led armies eastward in the conquest of India, except for Chandragupta Maurya ,Ranjit Singh, George Pollock and Sir Donald Stewart who crossed in the opposite direction.

Cyrus the Great Tamerlane

Alexander the Great Babur the Tiger

Chandragupta Ranjit Singh

Demetrius 1 of Bactria Humanyun

Mehmud Ghaznavi Shah Jahan

Muhammad Ghori Nader Shah Afshar

Genghis Khan Ahmed Shah Durrani

Qutlagh khwaja George Pollock Sir Donald Stewart,1st Baronet




Thursday, March 24, 2011

SIACHEN GLACIER,HIGHEST BATTLE FIELD ON EARTH(SARD JAHANNUM,FROZEN HELL))















Pak Militery Head Office(Siachen)























































Siachen Glacier

The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about 35.5°N 77.0°E, just east of the Line of Control between India-Pakistan. India controls all of the Siachen Glacier itself, including all tributary glaciers. At 70 km (43 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus.

The Siachen Glacier lies immediately south of the great watershed that separates China from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram that is sometimes called the "Third Pole." The glacier lies between theSaltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram Range to the east. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. The crest of the Saltoro Ridge's altitudes range from 5,450 to 7,720 m (17,880 to 25,330 feet). The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5,589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5,450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5,689 m (18,665 ft). The average winter snowfall is 10.5 m (35 ft) and temperatures can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F). Including all tributary glaciers, the Siachen Glacier system covers about 700 km2 (270 sq mi).

The Siachen Glacier boasts the world's highest helipad, built by India. The world's highest battlefield is also located on the glacier at a height of 21,000 feet (6400 m) above the sea level. GSM mobile service was launched in 2009 near army base camp.

Geography

Naming

The Siachen Glacier area is the smallest orange area.

"Sia" in the Balti language refers to the rose family plant widely dispersed in the region. "Chun" references any object found in abundance. Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses.

Melting

Siachen glacier is a source to Nubra river which later joins Shyok river.

The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in India Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. The Shyok in turn joins the Indus River; thus, the glacier is a major source of the Indus. Global warming has had one of its worst impacts here in the Himalayas with the glaciers melting at an unprecedented rate and monsoon rains now appearing north of the mountains. The volume of the glacier has been significantly reduced over recent decades. Military activity since 1984 has caused general environmental degradation on the glacier, and may be contributing in a relatively small degree to localized melting .

Border conflict

United Nations map of Line of Control between India and Pakistan. Siachen Glacier area was not defined in 1972 Simla Agreement.

The glacier's region is the highest battleground on earth, where India and Pakistan have fought intermittently since April 1984. Both countries maintain permanent military presence in the region at a height of over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The site is one of the most eminent examples of mountain warfare.